Kartesh D1
White Sea

Latitude:   66.3306     Longitude:   33.6683

Associated Investigators:

Nikolay Usov (Biology/Oceanology) ,
Daria Martynova (Biology) ,   Inna Kutcheva (Biology) ,   Igor Primakov (Biology/Oceanology) ,   Regina Prygunkova (Biology) ,   Alexey Babkov (Oceanology)  

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The White Sea Hydrology and Zooplankton Time-Series (Kartesh D1) samples zooplankton, temperature, and salinity every 10 days in spring-autumn and monthly in winter.

The White Sea is located in the north-west of Russia and is a part of the Arctic Ocean deeply penetrating the continent and separated from the adjacent Barents Sea by bottom rise. The conventional northern border of the White Sea is a line connecting capes Kanin Nos and Svyatoj Nos. Average depth of the Sea is 60 m reaching down to 343 m in the deepest parts. Sea surface area is about 90,000 km2, and the volume is 5400 km3.

The climate at the White Sea is continental with an average air temperature about -10 C in winter occasionally falling below -30 C, and an average air temperature of 15-18 C during the summer months. For about five months a year (December to May) the White Sea is covered with ice, all except its central parts. Summer surface water temperature is usually about 11-13 C, occasionally reaching 18 C, while in winter it is -0.3 to -0.8 C. Below 120 m of depth, the water temperature is -1.2 to -1.6 C all year round.

The overall annual freshwater flow of numerous streams and rivers is 230-240 km3. Salinity of surface waters is about 25 ppt, increasing with depth to 29-30 ppt. In winter accumulation of freshwater runoff under the ice may cause a significant decrease of surface salinity.

The White Sea waters are well aerated. Dissolved oxygen concentration varies from 6 to 9 mg-O2/l. Average level of dissolved organic matter is between 7 and 19 mg/l, while concentration of organic carbon in water column is 3.5-9.5 mg/l (average 6.0 mg/l). Chlorophyll is unevenly distributed and varies in photic layers from 0.5 mg/m3 (in Gorlo Straits) to 15.5 mg/m3 (in Dvina Bay).