Related Web Sites:
The White Sea Hydrology and Zooplankton Time-Series (Kartesh D1) samples zooplankton, temperature, and salinity every 10 days in spring-autumn and monthly in winter.
The White Sea is located in the north-west of Russia and is a part of the Arctic Ocean deeply penetrating the continent and separated from the adjacent Barents Sea by bottom rise. The conventional northern border of the White Sea is a line connecting capes Kanin Nos and Svyatoj Nos. Average depth of the Sea is 60 m reaching down to 343 m in the deepest parts. Sea surface area is about 90,000 km2, and the volume is 5400 km3.
The climate at the White Sea is continental with an average air temperature about -10 C in winter occasionally falling below -30 C, and an average air temperature of 15-18 C during the summer months. For about five months a year (December to May) the White Sea is covered with ice, all except its central parts. Summer surface water temperature is usually about 11-13 C, occasionally reaching 18 C, while in winter it is -0.3 to -0.8 C. Below 120 m of depth, the water temperature is -1.2 to -1.6 C all year round.
The overall annual freshwater flow of numerous streams and rivers is 230-240 km3. Salinity of surface waters is about 25 ppt, increasing with depth to 29-30 ppt. In winter accumulation of freshwater runoff under the ice may cause a significant decrease of surface salinity.
The White Sea waters are well aerated. Dissolved oxygen concentration varies from 6 to 9 mg-O2/l. Average level of dissolved organic matter is between 7 and 19 mg/l, while concentration of organic carbon in water column is 3.5-9.5 mg/l (average 6.0 mg/l). Chlorophyll is unevenly distributed and varies in photic layers from 0.5 mg/m3 (in Gorlo Straits) to 15.5 mg/m3 (in Dvina Bay).